Ginkgo biloba

(1) ITOKAWA, H., Totsuka, N., Nakahara, K., TAKEYA, K., LEPOITTEVIN, J. P., & ASAKAWA, Y. (1987). Antitumor principles from Ginkgo biloba L. Chemical and pharmaceutical bulletin, 35(7), 3016-3020. (

(2) Kleijnen, J., & Knipschild, P. (1992). Ginkgo biloba for cerebral insufficiency. British journal of clinical pharmacology, 34(4), 352-358. (

(3) Kobayashi N, Suzuki R, Koide C, Suzuki T, Matsuda H, Kubo M. [Effect of leaves of Ginkgo biloba on hair regrowth in C3H strain mice]. Yakugaku Zasshi. 1993 Oct;113(10):718-24. Japanese. doi: 10.1248/yakushi1947.113.10_718. PMID: 8254481. (

(4) Evans, J. R., & Cochrane Eyes and Vision Group. (1996). Ginkgo biloba extract for age‐related macular degeneration. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, 2013(1). (

(5) Cesarani A, Meloni F, Alpini D, Barozzi S, Verderio L, Boscani PF. Ginkgo biloba (EGb 761) in the treatment of equilibrium disorders. Adv Ther. 1998 Sep-Oct;15(5):291-304. PMID: 10345150. (

(6) Cohen AJ, Bartlik B. Ginkgo biloba for antidepressant-induced sexual dysfunction. J Sex Marital Ther. 1998 Apr-Jun;24(2):139-43. doi: 10.1080/00926239808404927. PMID: 9611693. (

(7) Field BH, Vadnal R. Ginkgo biloba and Memory: An Overview. Nutr Neurosci. 1998;1(4):255-67. doi: 10.1080/1028415X.1998.11747236. PMID: 27414695. (

(8) Oken, B. S., Storzbach, D. M., & Kaye, J. A. (1998). The efficacy of Ginkgo biloba on cognitive function in Alzheimer disease. Archives of neurology, 55(11), 1409-1415. (

(9) Chung, H. S., Harris, A., Kristinsson, J. K., Ciulla, T. A., Kagemann, C., & Ritch, R. (1999). Ginkgo biloba extract increases ocular blood flow velocity. Journal of ocular pharmacology and therapeutics, 15(3), 233-240. (

(10) Waynberg, J., & Brewer, S. (2000). Effects of Herbal vX on libido and sexual activity in premenopausal and postmenopausal women. Advances in therapy, 17, 255-262. (

(11) Watanabe, C. M., Wolffram, S., Ader, P., Rimbach, G., Packer, L., Maguire, J. J., ... & Gohil, K. (2001). The in vivo neuromodulatory effects of the herbal medicine ginkgo biloba. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 98(12), 6577-6580. (

(12) Bairy, K. L., & Rao, C. M. (2001). Wound healing profiles of Ginkgo biloba. Journal of Natural Remedies, 25-27. (

(13) Solomon PR, Adams F, Silver A, Zimmer J, DeVeaux R. Ginkgo for memory enhancement: a randomized controlled trial. JAMA. 2002 Aug 21;288(7):835-40. doi: 10.1001/jama.288.7.835. PMID: 12186600. (

(14) Thiagarajan, G., Chandani, S., Rao, S. H., Samuni, A. M., Chandrasekaran, K., & Balasubramanian, D. (2002). Molecular and cellular assessment of ginkgo biloba extract as a possible ophthalmic drug. Experimental eye research, 75(4), 421-430. (

(15) van Beek, T. A. (2002). Chemical analysis of Ginkgo biloba leaves and extracts. Journal of Chromatography a, 967(1), 21-55. (

(16) Zimmermann, M., Colciaghi, F., Cattabeni, F., & Di Luca, M. (2002). Ginkgo biloba extract: from molecular mechanisms to the treatment of Alzhelmer's disease. Cellular and molecular biology (Noisy-le-Grand, France), 48(6), 613-623. (

(17) DeFeudis, F. V., Papadopoulos, V., & Drieu, K. (2003). Ginkgo biloba extracts and cancer: a research area in its infancy. Fundamental & clinical pharmacology, 17(4), 405-417. (

(18) Wheatley D. Triple-blind, placebo-controlled trial of Ginkgo biloba in sexual dysfunction due to antidepressant drugs. Hum Psychopharmacol. 2004 Dec;19(8):545-8. doi: 10.1002/hup.627. PMID: 15378664. (

(19) Hirooka, K., Tokuda, M., Miyamoto, O., Itano, T., Baba, T., & Shiraga, F. (2004). The Ginkgo biloba extract (EGb 761) provides a neuroprotective effect on retinal ganglion cells in a rat model of chronic glaucoma. Current eye research, 28(3), 153-157. (

(20) Ilieva, I., Ohgami, K., Shiratori, K., Koyama, Y., Yoshida, K., Kase, S., ... & Ohno, S. (2004). The effects of Ginkgo biloba extract on lipopolysaccharide-induced inflammation in vitro and in vivo. Experimental Eye Research, 79(2), 181-187. (

(21) Strømgaard, K., & Nakanishi, K. (2004). Chemistry and biology of terpene trilactones from Ginkgo biloba. Angewandte Chemie International Edition, 43(13), 1640-1658. (

(22) Smith PF, Zheng Y, Darlington CL. Ginkgo biloba extracts for tinnitus: More hype than hope? J Ethnopharmacol. 2005 Aug 22;100(1-2):95-9. doi: 10.1016/j.jep.2005.05.032. PMID: 15998570. (

(23) DeKosky ST, Fitzpatrick A, Ives DG, Saxton J, Williamson J, Lopez OL, Burke G, Fried L, Kuller LH, Robbins J, Tracy R, Woolard N, Dunn L, Kronmal R, Nahin R, Furberg C; GEMS Investigators. The Ginkgo Evaluation of Memory (GEM) study: design and baseline data of a randomized trial of Ginkgo biloba extract in prevention of dementia. Contemp Clin Trials. 2006 Jun;27(3):238-53. doi: 10.1016/j.cct.2006.02.007. Epub 2006 Apr 19. PMID: 16627007. (

(24) DeKosky, S. T., Williamson, J. D., Fitzpatrick, A. L., Kronmal, R. A., Ives, D. G., Saxton, J. A., ... & Ginkgo Evaluation of Memory (GEM) Study Investigators. (2008). Ginkgo biloba for prevention of dementia: a randomized controlled trial. Jama, 300(19), 2253-2262. (

(25) Snitz BE , O'Meara ES , Carlson MC et al. Ginkgo biloba pour prévenir le déclin cognitif chez les personnes âgées : un essai randomisé . JAMA. 2009;302(24):2663-2670. est ce que je:10.1001/jama.2009.1913 (

(26) Russo, V., Stella, A., Appezzati, L., Barone, A., Stagni, E., Roszkowska, A. M., & Noci, N. D. (2009). Clinical efficacy of a Ginkgo biloba extract in the topical treatment of allergic conjunctivitis. European Journal of Ophthalmology, 19(3), 331-336. (

(27) Birks, J., & Evans, J. G. (2009). Ginkgo biloba for cognitive impairment and dementia. Cochrane Database of systematic reviews, (1). (

(28) Nicolaï, S. P., Kruidenier, L. M., Bendermacher, B. L., Prins, M. H., & Teijink, J. A. (2009). Ginkgo biloba for intermittent claudication. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, (2). (

(29) Brinkley TE, Lovato JF, Arnold AM, Furberg CD, Kuller LH, Burke GL, Nahin RL, Lopez OL, Yasar S, Williamson JD; Ginkgo Evaluation of Memory (GEM) Study Investigators. Effect of Ginkgo biloba on blood pressure and incidence of hypertension in elderly men and women. Am J Hypertens. 2010 May;23(5):528-33. doi: 10.1038/ajh.2010.14. Epub 2010 Feb 18. PMID: 20168306; PMCID: PMC2989407. (

(30) Janßen, I. M., Sturtz, S., Skipka, G., Zentner, A., & Busse, R. (2010). Ginkgo biloba in Alzheimer's disease: a systematic review. Wiener Medizinische Wochenschrift (1946), 160(21-22), 539-546. (

(31) Weinmann, S., Roll, S., Schwarzbach, C., Vauth, C., & Willich, S. N. (2010). Effects of Ginkgo biloba in dementia: systematic review and meta-analysis. BMC geriatrics, 10, 1-12. (

(32) von Boetticher A. Ginkgo biloba extract in the treatment of tinnitus: a systematic review. Neuropsychiatr Dis Treat. 2011;7:441-7. doi: 10.2147/NDT.S22793. Epub 2011 Jul 28. PMID: 21857784; PMCID: PMC3157487. (

(33) Rojas P, Serrano-García N, Medina-Campos ON, Pedraza-Chaverri J, Ogren SO, Rojas C. Antidepressant-like effect of a Ginkgo biloba extract (EGb761) in the mouse forced swimming test: role of oxidative stress. Neurochem Int. 2011 Oct;59(5):628-36. doi: 10.1016/j.neuint.2011.05.007. Epub 2011 Jun 6. PMID: 21672588. (

(34) Silberstein RB, Pipingas A, Song J, Camfield DA, Nathan PJ, Stough C. Examining brain-cognition effects of ginkgo biloba extract: brain activation in the left temporal and left prefrontal cortex in an object working memory task. Evid Based Complement Alternat Med. 2011;2011:164139. doi: 10.1155/2011/164139. Epub 2011 Aug 18. PMID: 21941584; PMCID: PMC3166615. (

(35) Cybulska-Heinrich, A. K., Mozaffarieh, M., & Flammer, J. (2012). Ginkgo biloba: an adjuvant therapy for progressive normal and high tension glaucoma. Molecular Vision, 18, 390. (

(36) Shim, S. H., Kim, J. M., Choi, C. Y., Kim, C. Y., & Park, K. H. (2012). Ginkgo biloba extract and bilberry anthocyanins improve visual function in patients with normal tension glaucoma. Journal of medicinal food, 15(9), 818-823. (

(37) Evans JR. Ginkgo biloba extract for age-related macular degeneration. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2013 Jan 31;2013(1):CD001775. doi: 10.1002/14651858.CD001775.pub2. PMID: 23440785; PMCID: PMC7061350. (

(38) Hilton, M. P., Zimmermann, E. F., & Hunt, W. T. (2013). Ginkgo biloba for tinnitus. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, (3). (

(39) X.J. Xiong, W. Liu, X.C. Yang, B. Feng, Y.Q. Zhang, S.J. Li, X.K. Li, J. Wang, Ginkgo biloba extract for essential hypertension: A systemic review, Phytomedicine, Volume 21, Issue 10, 2014, Pages 1131-1136, ISSN 0944-7113, (

(40) Sokolova L, Hoerr R, Mishchenko T. Treatment of Vertigo: A Randomized, Double-Blind Trial Comparing Efficacy and Safety of Ginkgo biloba Extract EGb 761 and Betahistine. Int J Otolaryngol. 2014;2014:682439. doi: 10.1155/2014/682439. Epub 2014 Jun 25. PMID: 25057270; PMCID: PMC4099171. (

(41) Xinxing Guo , Xiangbin Kong , Rui Huang , Ling Jin , Xiaohu Ding , Mingguang He , Xing Liu , Mehul Chimanlal Patel , Nathan G. Congdon ; Effet du Ginkgo Biloba sur le champ visuel et la sensibilité au contraste chez les patients chinois atteints de glaucome à tension normale : un essai clinique randomisé et croisé. Investir. Ophtalmol. Vis. Sci. 2014;55(1):110-116. (

(42) Wang Y, Wang R, Wang Y, Peng R, Wu Y, Yuan Y. Ginkgo biloba extract mitigates liver fibrosis and apoptosis by regulating p38 MAPK, NF-κB/IκBα, and Bcl-2/Bax signaling. Drug Des Devel Ther. 2015 Dec 3;9:6303-17. doi: 10.2147/DDDT.S93732. PMID: 26664050; PMCID: PMC4671772. (

(43) Zhang, Z., Chen, S., Mei, H. et al. L'extrait de feuille de Ginkgo biloba induit des dommages à l'ADN en inhibant l'activité de la topoisomérase II dans les cellules hépatiques humaines. Sci Rep 5 , 14633 (2015). (

(44) Mahmoudian-Sani MR, Hashemzadeh-Chaleshtori M, Asadi-Samani M, Yang Q. Ginkgo biloba in the treatment of tinnitus: An updated literature review. Int Tinnitus J. 2017 Jun 1;21(1):58-62. doi: 10.5935/0946-5448.20170011. PMID: 28723603. (

(45) Lieberman HR, Kellogg MD, Fulgoni VL 3rd, Agarwal S. Moderate doses of commercial preparations of Ginkgo biloba do not alter markers of liver function but moderate alcohol intake does: A new approach to identify and quantify biomarkers of 'adverse effects' of dietary supplements. Regul Toxicol Pharmacol. 2017 Mar;84:45-53. doi: 10.1016/j.yrtph.2016.12.010. Epub 2016 Dec 24. PMID: 28025058. (

(46) Malakouti, J., Jabbari, F., Jafarabadi, M., Javadzadeh, Y., & Khalili, A. (2017). The impact of ginkgo biloba tablet and aromatherapy inhaler combination on sexual function in females during postmenopausal period: A double-blind randomized controlled trial. Int J Womens Health Reprod Sci, 5(2), 129-136. (

(47) Okipniak, Iryna; Ilashchuk, Tetiana; Bachuk-Ponych, Nataliia. A11847 Ginkgo biloba influence on blood pressure in patients with arterial hypertension. Journal of Hypertension 36():p e206, October 2018. | DOI: 10.1097/01.hjh.0000548840.07008.48 (

(48) Kang, J. M., & Lin, S. (2018). Ginkgo biloba and its potential role in glaucoma. Current opinion in ophthalmology, 29(2), 116-120. (

(49) Liu H, Ye M, Guo H. An Updated Review of Randomized Clinical Trials Testing the Improvement of Cognitive Function of Ginkgo biloba Extract in Healthy People and Alzheimer's Patients. Front Pharmacol. 2020 Feb 21;10:1688. doi: 10.3389/fphar.2019.01688. PMID: 32153388; PMCID: PMC7047126. (

(50) Labkovich, M., Jacobs, E. B., Bhargava, S., Pasquale, L. R., & Ritch, R. (2020). Ginkgo biloba extract in ophthalmic and systemic disease, with a focus on normal-tension glaucoma. Asia-Pacific journal of ophthalmology, 9(3), 215-225. (

(51) Nishimon, S., Yamaguchi, M., Muraki, H., Sakai, N., & Nishino, S. (2020). Intraperitoneal injection of ginkgolide B, a major active compound of Ginkgo biloba, dose-dependently increases the amount of wake and decreases non-rapid eye movement sleep in C57BL/6 mice. Neuroscience letters, 722, 134832. (

(52) Hallak, B. , Schneider, A. , Güntensperger, D. and Schapowal, A. (2021) Standardized Ginkgo Biloba Extract in the Treatment of Vertigo and/or Tinnitus: A Review of the Literature. Advances in Aging Research, 10, 31-57. doi: 10.4236/aar.2021.102002. (

(53) Ge W, Ren C, Xing L, Guan L, Zhang C, Sun X, Wang G, Niu H, Qun S. Ginkgo biloba extract improves cognitive function and increases neurogenesis by reducing Aβ pathology in 5×FAD mice. Am J Transl Res. 2021 Mar 15;13(3):1471-1482. PMID: 33841671; PMCID: PMC8014356. (

(54) Li Y, Sheng Y, Liu J, Xu G, Yu W, Cui Q, Lu X, Du P, An L. Hair-growth promoting effect and anti-inflammatory mechanism of Ginkgo biloba polysaccharides. Carbohydr Polym. 2022 Feb 15;278:118811. doi: 10.1016/j.carbpol.2021.118811. Epub 2021 Oct 26. PMID: 34973721. (

(55) Heide, W. , Adlung, B. , Körtke, C. and Hoerr, R. (2022) Ginkgo biloba Extract EGb 761® Improves Central Vestibular Vertigo in Patients Undergoing Vestibular Exercises: A Randomised Placebo-Controlled Trial. Neuroscience and Medicine, 13, 91-102. doi: 10.4236/nm.2022.133008. (

(56) Fogagnolo, P., Romano, D., De Ruvo, V., Sabella, P., & Rossetti, L. (2022). Clinical efficacy of an eyedrop containing hyaluronic acid and Ginkgo biloba in the management of dry eye disease Induced by cataract surgery. Journal of Ocular Pharmacology and Therapeutics, 38(4), 305-310. (

(57) Maurya, N. K. (2022). Libido Boosting Functional Foods. In Recent Advances in Male Reproductive System. IntechOpen. (

(58) Barbalho, S. M., Direito, R., Laurindo, L. F., Marton, L. T., Guiguer, E. L., Goulart, R. D. A., ... & Araújo, A. C. (2022). Ginkgo biloba in the aging process: A narrative review. Antioxidants, 11(3), 525. (

(59) Liu D, Hu Y, Wang D, Han H, Wang Y, Wang X, Zhou Z, Ma X, Dong Y. Herbal medicines in the treatment of tinnitus: An updated review. Front Pharmacol. 2023 Jan 4;13:1037528. doi: 10.3389/fphar.2022.1037528. PMID: 36686691; PMCID: PMC9847569. (

(60) Yang, X., Li, D., Zhang, M. et al. L'extrait de Ginkgo biloba atténue le syndrome hémorragique du foie gras chez les poules pondeuses en remodelant le microbiote intestinal. J Animal Sci Biotechnologie 14 , 97 (2023). (

(61) Xiang Gao, Yan Cheng, Fangyuan Liu, Xiaozhen Han, Chuanliang Liu, The clinical efficacy and safety of Ginkgo biloba in vertigo patients: A meta-analysis, Advances in Integrative Medicine, 2023, ISSN 2212-9588, (

(62) Andressa Gabriela Soliani, Beatriz Gangale Muratori, Augusto Leonardo dos Santos, Patricia Sartorelli, Suzete Maria Cerutti, Standardized extract of Ginkgo biloba enhances memory persistence over time, Phytomedicine Plus, Volume 3, Issue 2, 2023, 100441, ISSN 2667-0313, (

(63) Hou, J., Mori, K., Ikeda, Si. et coll. Les extraits de Ginkgo biloba améliorent la circulation choroïdienne conduisant à la suppression de la myopie chez la souris. Sci Rep 13 , 3772 (2023). (
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